Development produces two main outcomes to the society, namely a secure or insecure world. A secure world suggests that society has achieved a prosperous, just, peaceful, and sustainable environment. Alternatively, an insecure world represents injustice, violence, poverty, environmental degradation, and other forms of insecurity. The relationship between development and security, as a concept and political project, is typically dialectic. However, it can be tracked down from the history of the term “development”. The idea of “development”, as both a theoretical thought and political project since the emergence of modern state in 20th century, has been accepted in the framework of state’s policy, particularly by Western countries. After the establishment of new modern states in the Asia Pacific, development was considered as a global project which was driven by developed states in the West. The notion of development as a political project, known scholarly as ‘developmentalism’, has been adopted since 1960s to 1990s in Latin America and Asia Pacific.
The consequences of developmentalism have been criticized by social and political scholars such as Jürgen Habermas (critical studies), Anthony Giddens (third way), Serge Latouche (postdevelopment), and others scholars. Development since 20st centuries got its theoretical foundation from the philosophy of modernism. Modernism put the society as an object of changing formulation which is known as the grand narrative of development. The society should adapt and leave their previous social system and start using the formula of modernism. Furthermore, the state’s function is to control and dominate the grand narrative by utilizing its laws and apparatuses. Such the case of Indonesia during New Order era, when the bureaucracies, military forces, and the dominant political party (namely Golkar), were used to control the implementation of the Western notion of development. The actual political participation and critical feedback from the society were absent. In turn, the developmentalist model of the New Order has generated environmental problems, corruption, criminality, poverty, political violence, and social violent conflicts nationwide. This historical condition conveys the need for a critical reflection about the potential problematic relationship between the idea and model of developmentalist approach and the security/insecurity issues.
During the Cold War (1950-1980s), the binary opposition between the United States and the Soviet Union has generated a narrow focus in the study of International Relations. In this era, the study on security emanated from a more traditional and strategic perspective which concerned on issues such as nuclear deterrence and arms race. However, when the Cold War ended, the sudden conclusion of a strategic grand narrative of great power rivalry has created the need to look at other, previously-neglected security issues. At the same time, the practice of developmentalism has created a form of global catastrophe, which was being neglected by previous security studies’ scholars, due to the presence of the Cold War grand strategic narrative. A widening and deepening process of discursive ideas then constructed more diverse approaches regarding the issue of security. The idea of development and security came together to introduced a new perspective of security studies. From the narrow-focus on great power confrontation and military aspect, the new security approach discusses the problems of intrastate and interstate political violence, poverty, human rights, cyber-crimes, terrorism, and environmental degradation. Those problems suggested a probable causal relationship with the project of development in world society.
Therefore, development and security issues need a special attention from both theoretical and field studies in order to comprehend the world society direction. It becomes the main topic of the 3rdInternational Conference on Contemporary Social and Political Affairs (ICoCSPA) 2017 that will be hosted by the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences UniversitasAirlangga. It is in this regard that we would like to invite you for the research paper submission.